Material mechanical properties

Material Mechanical Properties

This is a summary of the most important material mechanical properties

Tensile Strength -Is a measurement of the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks.

The tensile strength of a material is the maximum amount of tensile stress that it can take before failure, for example breaking.

There are three typical definitions of tensile strength:

  • Yield strength – The stress a material can withstand without permanent deformation. This is not a sharply defined point. Yield strength is the stress which will cause a permanent deformation of 0.2% of the original dimension.
  • Ultimate strength – The maximum stress a material can withstand.
  • Breaking strength – The stress coordinate on the stress-strain curve at the point of rupture.

Young Modulus / Modulus of Elasticity – relationship between stress (force per unit area) and strain (proportional deformation) in a material in the linear elasticity regime of a uniaxial deformation.

Elongation at yield – The stress corresponding to a specified permanent (plastic) deformation.

Elongation at Break – Elongation between zero stress and final rupture, as a percent of original specimen length. For example, a 1 meter specimen that stretches to 1.1 meters before breaking in two has 10% elongation at break. Also simply called elongation

Ultimate elongation -Is the percentage increase in length that occurs before it breaks under tension


Flexural Modulus – the flexural modulus or bending modulus [1] is an intensive property that is computed as the ratio of stress to strain in flexural deformation, or the tendency for a material to resist bending. It is determined from the slope of a stress-strain curve produced by a flexural test (such as the ASTM D790) and uses units of force per area.

Flexural Yield strength – Typically measured at 5% deformation/strain of the outer surface,